By World Health Organization
This booklet offers revised instruction values for the 4 commonest air toxins - particulate topic, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide - according to a contemporary assessment of the gathered medical facts. the reason for number of every one instruction price is supported through a synthesis of data rising from learn at the health and wellbeing results of every pollutant. hence, those instructions now additionally follow globally. they are often learn along side Air caliber guidance for Europe, 2d version, that is nonetheless the authority on guide values for all different air toxins.
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Additional resources for Air Quality Guidelines: Global Update 2005
While this is best known in the context of large cities such as Los Angeles and Mexico City, it also 28 AIR QUALITY GUIDELINES occurs on a larger regional scale in areas such as western Europe, where the emissions from many cities combine together to form a highly polluted atmosphere in which ozone forms and is transported over long distances. The presence of peroxy radicals and their involvement in reaction 4 will also allow the creation of high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, which far exceed those predicted by the photostationary state (reactions 1–3).
This chemistry has obvious implications for the control of nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Fig. 7 shows a typical relationship between annual mean concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides at an urban location in the United Kingdom. The relationship is curvilinear and reduction of high concentrations of nitrogen oxides leads to a far less than commensurate reduction in nitrogen dioxide. Consequently, very large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides may be needed to achieve compliance with air quality objectives for nitrogen dioxide.
Annual average nitrogen dioxide concentrations in Asian cities typically lie in the range 23–74 μg/m3. In 2002, the average concentration in Calcutta was 77 μg/m3 and in New Delhi 49 μg/m3 (55). Typical concentrations measured in New Delhi in February 2005 were 31–83 μg/m3. In Jakarta, average nitrogen dioxide concentrations mapped using passive samplers showed levels of 20–70 μg/m3 as a weekly average (44). The peak daily concentration was 446 μg/m3. In the urban areas of Africa, traffic emissions have become the dominant source of nitrogen dioxide.