By James S. Olson, Abraham O. Mendoza

A learn of the U.S. economic system is necessary to realizing U.S. politics, society, and tradition. To make that examine more uncomplicated, this dictionary bargains concise essays on greater than 1,200 economics-related themes. Entries conceal a large array of pivotal details on old occasions, laws, fiscal phrases, exertions unions, innovations, curiosity teams, elections, complaints, financial rules and philosophies, monetary associations, and worldwide techniques. Economics-focused biographies and corporate profiles are featured as sidebars, and the paintings additionally contains either a chronology of significant occasions in U.S. monetary background and a selective bibliography.

Encompassing U.S. heritage because 1776 with an emphasis on fresh a long time, entries diversity from themes with regards to the early fiscal formation of the republic to people who discover financial points of data expertise within the twenty first century. The paintings is written to be truly understood by means of upper-level highschool scholars, yet deals enough intensity to entice undergraduates. additionally, most of the people could be attracted through informative discussions of every little thing from fresh strength to what retains rates of interest low.

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About 33,000 additional American troops were inserted into Afghanistan but were withdrawn by September 2012. Even as reports surfaced of potential peace talks between NATO and some Taliban leaders, NATO and other coalition partners announced plans to withdraw their forces from the country by the end of 2014, with security turned over to the Afghan army and police. —troops. By early 2014, the likelihood that Karzai would agree to a bilateral security pact with the United States had dimmed drastically.

S. S. Army general Tommy Franks commenced air attacks against Afghanistan 7 8 A F G H A N I STA N WA R A N D T H E WA R ON TE R R O R with some NATO support. This marked the opening of Operation Enduring Freedom, whose goals included toppling the Taliban regime and rooting out terrorist enclaves in Afghanistan. High on the list was the capture or death of bin Laden. Throughout history, Afghanistan has posed major challenges for any invader, not least because of its physical environment, comprising deserts, high plateaus, and mountain ranges.

The real meaning of affirmative action continued to be muddled. In 1980, in Fullilove v. Klutznick, the Supreme Court upheld federal legislation requiring that 10 percent of all federal public works projects be reserved for minority contractors, regardless of whether they were low bidders on a project. By the early 1990s, with the American economy in a recession, criticisms of affirmative action programs surfaced again, generally with Democrats defending them and Republicans opposing them. In 2003, the Supreme Court, adjudicating a case stemming from an admissions office at the University of Michigan, ruled specific quotas unconstitutional.

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