By Shyy W., Aono H., Kang C.-k., Liu H.

This is often a terrific publication for graduate scholars and researchers drawn to the aerodynamics, structural dynamics, and flight dynamics of small birds, bats, and bugs, in addition to of micro air cars (MAVs), which current a number of the richest difficulties intersecting technological know-how and engineering. The agility and amazing flight functionality of usual flyers, because of their versatile, deformable wing buildings in addition to to impressive wing, tail, and physique coordination, is especially major. To layout and construct MAVs with functionality akin to ordinary flyers, it really is crucial that normal flyers' mixed versatile structural dynamics and aerodynamics are appropriately understood. the first concentration of this ebook is to deal with the hot advancements in flapping wing aerodynamics. This publication extends the paintings offered in Aerodynamics of Low Reynolds quantity Flyers (Shyy et al. 2008)

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Two main ways exist to obtain a low moment of inertia: to keep the mass of the wing as low as possible and to concentrate the mass as much as possible near the axis of rotation. The inertial power is typically small under medium to fast forward flight conditions and can be neglected [80]. However, for slow or hovering flight, this power must be accounted for. The total power required (Ptot ) for flight is the sum of the total aerodynamic power and the inertial power: Ptot = Paero + Piner = Pind + Ppro + Ppar + Piner .

Because the wings are often flexed during the upstroke and therefore not exposed to the same aerodynamic force or moment of inertia as during the downstroke, the weight of the supracoracoideus muscle is generally low compared with the weight of the pectoral muscle. Hummingbirds are different, having an aerodynamically active upstroke (producing lift). In their case, the weight of the supracoracoideus is higher; according to Norberg [4], this muscle group can constitute up to 12 percent of the body weight.

The Great Flight Diagram gives a relation between wing loading, weight, and cruising speed. From Tennekes [29]. 3. 60 Source: Originally compiled by Norberg[4], Greenewalt [55], and Rayner [56]. 3. 3 summarizes expanded correlations. More details are discussed in the following sections. 1 Geometric Similarity The concept of geometric similarity can help relate different physical quantities by means of the dimensional argument. 20 correlates wing loading with the weight of a vehicle. For example, the wing loading is proportional to the one-third power of the weight as shown later, if the aerodynamic parameters remain unchanged (which is not true, as is discussed in detail).

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