By George Gamow

First released in 1945, within the aftermath of the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Atomic power in Cosmic and Human lifestyles deals a special account of the matter of atomic strength and the underlying rules of radioactive decay. Written via the pre-eminent physicist George Gamow, and devoted to the wish of lasting peace, the booklet used to be initially designed to offer an entire photograph of what atomic power is, the place it comes from, and the way it may be used for greater or worse. that includes a couple of graphs and illustrations through the writer himself, this small quantity will stay of price to these attracted to the background of the examine of radioactivity.

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Sample text

The theoretical model of the spiral resonator is discussed in detail later in this chapter. In this chapter, the theoretical model and operation of the spiral resonator are presented. The distributed component model and coupled line model are presented. A parametric study of the spiral resonator is performed. Many useful design curves are derived from the study. Following the parametric study, the microstrip spiral resonators are designed on 90-mm thin flexible laminate to emulate the tagged polymer banknote.

30 3 Spiral Resonators Fig. 6 shows the conventional design phase of a spiral resonator. The design phase starts with the choice of a laminate on which the spiral resonator is to be designed on. Further, an approximation of the spiral resonator’s layout parameters/ dimensions is done based on the quarter wavelength of the desired resonant frequency. The full wave solver is then used to calculate the S-parameters vs. frequency behaviour of the frequency resonator. If the results are not satisfactory, the spiral resonator dimensions are varied, and the full wave analysis is performed again until satisfactory results are achieved.

The equivalent circuit model is shown in Fig. 3. The spiral resonator is modelled as a series RLC circuit, where the distributed capacitance is CD, the distributed inductance is LD and the resistive loss of the spiral is RD. The coupling between the microstrip line and the spiral resonator is modelled with mutual inductance LM, which is determined by the length of the coupled line and the distance from the 50 Ω line. Jiang et al. [117] reported the calculation of distributed capacitance and resonant frequency of spiral resonators.

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