By Neil Roughley
Kant claimed that the imperative issues of philosophy all converge on one query: used to be ist der Mensch? beginning with the most declare that conceptions of the human play an important structuring position in idea building, the individuals during this volume(renowned students from a number of disciplines - philosophy, anthropology, psychology, literary reviews) examine the jobs that conceptions of the human play either in philosophy and in different human and social sciences.
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Additional resources for Being Humans: Anthropological Universality and Particularity in Transdisciplinary Perspectives
42 Neil Roughley Awareness of something doesn't necessarily entail the interest in, or capability of, doing anything about it. O f the three attributes mentioned together here then, self-consciousness is, taken on its own, irrelevant for the claim that cultural universals are to be understood as mere tendencies. Which of the other two characteristics is to be seen as explanatory depends on which reading of "world-openness" is chosen. Either way, we have here a claim about a founding characteristic of the structure of what it means to be the human.
Putative discussions about descriptive characteristics of the human can often be shown to be disputes about values. Does this mean that we simply have to chose whether we prefer to think of ourselves as autonomous rather than as pre-programmed? There is a further problem here for the descriptive universalist who postulates either version of "world-openness" - either as the freedom of individuals or cultures to resist natural tendencies, or as the possibility of natural determinants being completely overridden by socio-cultural determinants.
World-Openness" Stagi offers one main reason why one should not be too hasty to abandon general claims about the human in the face of counter-examples: cultural universals have, he claims, a different status to the laws of natural science. They are regularities with the status of tendencies, so that nothing determines when they are realised. This claim presupposes a fundamental fact about being human, which Stagi, following the philosophical anthropologist Max Scheler, labels the capacity to "say No" to one's own impulses (1991, 55).